Monaco's Mbappe was the player to punish the Peruvians when he tapped in Olivier Giroud's deflected shot, coming after a period of France dominance.
They'll look to improve Thursday in their second group game against a talented Peru side that lost its opening game of the tournament to Denmark.
After starting with Kylian Mbappe and Ousmane Dembele against the Socceroos, Deschamps simply had to hand the Chelsea striker a place in the team against Peru, so one of the most exciting strikers in world football would have to be dropped.
Peru coach Gareca sent on Anderson Santamaria and Jefferson Farfan at the break, while Samuel Umtiti shook off a dead leg, before Aquino clipped the outside of the post with a swerving drive from 25 yards.
Guerrero, 34, is Peru's all-time top goalscorer but was cleared to play in the tournament only two weeks before it started, when he won a reprieve from a doping ban over a cocaine byproduct contained in a tea he drank.
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He played a few seasons in the IPL before poor performances and lack of form ensured that he was left out in the cold. But I would say our spinners have a lot of experience and I would say experience can't be easily bought.
It was the right call, not only because Mbappe surpassed David Trezeguet as France's youngest World Cup goal scorer at 19 years and 183 days, but because the Paris Saint-Germain youngster tormented Peru down the right flank and worked well with Giroud.
Guerrero almost missed the World Cup before having his doping ban lifted by a Swiss judge prior to the tournament.
Peru, needing a point to survive in the competition, offered more than just spirited resistance in the second half but were rarely able to test Hugo Lloris on the occasion of his 100th cap.
Peru: Gallese (7), Rodriguez (6), Trauco (6), Ramos (6), Advincula (7), Cueva (6), Carrillo (8), Yotun (6), Flores (6), Aquino (7), Guerrero (7). A penalty scored by Antoine Griezmann and Australia own goal were the difference, but the performance was lackluster. Both matches can be streamed on fuboTV (Try for free). The chemistry they found as substitutes carried over and it sharpened France's attack. But that constant motion ate up a lot of energy and hurt their control as the match progressed.
He also now has made 76 appearances wearing the captain's armband.